The land used for the project is leased by LTWP from Marsabit County for a term of 33 years with an option to extend twice up to 99 years. The entire concession area is 150,000 acres, representing less than 1% of Marsabit County. However, the actual project site required for the wind power project is 40,000 acres.
Only 0.2% of the site is occupied by physical structures. LTWP’s permanent structures include 365 wind turbines, a substation and workers’ accommodation.
The remaining land, representing 99.8% of the project site, is open to the public and continues to be used by the local nomadic population for settlement, grazing of livestock, and access to water points. Moreover, the C-77 public road passes through the project site, from the southern end to the northwest end.
The project site is not fenced. However, there are two fenced areas, which are (i) the substation, for health and safety purposes; and; (ii) the workers’ accommodation, for security reasons.
One of the largest benefits to the communities around the LTWP wind power project has been the upgrading of 208km of the C77 public road from Laisamis to Sarima at a cost of USD 30 million. The road has reduced travel times from Loiyangalani to Laisamis, and allows easier access to Lake Turkana. The drive from Sarima to Laisamis now takes less than 3 hours compared to about 7 hours before the road was upgraded. Moreover, the rehabilitation of the road has also greatly improved access to markets, health centers and education facilities in the wider area.
LTWP, through its Winds of Change Foundation (WoC), has implemented community initiatives aimed at uplifting the socio-economic welfare of communities in Laisamis Constituency (an area of approximately 12,000km²). (See question 3)
The project provided employment for more than 2,500 community members during construction. See question 7 for further information.
More information about WoC can be obtained HERE
Winds of Change operates within the administrative boundaries of Laisamis Constituency. Given the large scale of the constituency, LTWP focuses on:
- Communities located in the immediate area of the wind farm (i.e. Loiyangalani, M Kulal, South Horr and Sarima); and,
- Communities located within Laisamis Constituency.
WoC works in partnership with the county government, local leaders, NGOs, CBOs and government departments in implementing negotiated activities to ensure optimal stakeholder engagement, participation and ownership.
An overview of some of the projects undertaken by WoC can be found HERE.
LTWP has four main methods through which benefits are shared with the community. These are:
- Allocating a minimum of Euro 500,000 (appr KES 60 million) per annum from its revenues to its Winds of Change Foundation (WoC), to be used for community development initiatives in the wider project area. Formally, this commitment will start once the wind farm is operational (forecasted to be 2019). However, by raising funds and partnering with other organizations since June 2015, WoC has already invested approximately Euro 1.5M (approx. KES 180 million) in community development activities in Laisamis Constituency. This means that communities are already benefitting through this mechanism.
- Payment of taxes, amounting to millions of shillings, to the national government for development projects at the county government level. The national government is responsible for the collection of tax revenues and distribution to the count
- Payment of land lease to Marsabit County Government, which is subsequently responsible for usage of these funds in a manner that enables community development; and,
- LTWP is responsible for generating and transferring the major part of revenues from the carbon credits earned by the project to the Government of Kenya (GoK). GoK is then responsible for ensuring that the funds accrued from the carbon credits will be applied to benefit the communities living near the wind farm and along the power transmission line, namely the counties of Marsabit, Samburu, Laikipia, Nyandarua and Nakuru. It is the responsibility of the GoK (not LTWP) to ensure that carbon credit funds are allocated to these counties and used on community development matters.
The benefits described above are in addition to activities such as rehabilitation of 208km of road from Laisamis to Sarima and employment of more than 2,500 people to date (of whom approximately 75% have been from Marsabit County).
Yes, communities that are connected to the national grid will benefit from the electricity generated by LTWP. The electricity generated by the wind turbines will go into the national grid. Then the national power distributor, Kenya Power & Lighting Company in conjunction with the Rural Electrification Authority, distributes power under its rural electrification mandate.
Under the Energy Act, power generation and power distribution by the same company is not possible. LTWP only has a license to generate power not for distribution.
Electricity access is a key catalyst for economic development. Increasing access to electricity in Kenya is a goal of the Government. LTWP would like neighbouring communities to be able to access electricity, and is committed to working with the Government and Marsabit County to explore possible avenues to realize this in the future.
LTWP project employed more than 2,500 people during the construction phase of the project, of whom about 75% came from Marsabit County.
As of February 2018, the Project employed 334 people, of whom:
- 255 (76%) are from Marsabit County;
- 74 (22%) are from other parts of Kenya; and,
- 5 (1%) are expatriates.
Going forward, LTWP does not expect to employ significantly more people on the project. During operations, the total number of employees is forecasted to fluctuate between 320 - 350 people.
LTWP’s recruitment policy is to fill employment opportunities with as many local people as possible, i.e. people from Laisamis Constituency and/or wider Marsabit County. Where a local suitable candidate is unavailable, LTWP will seek to employ a Kenyan national. Finally, if suitable candidates are not available nationally, LTWP will advertise job openings internationally.
Moreover, LTWP, through its Winds of Change Foundation, prioritizes the hiring of local contractors to implement community development projects (where possible). These local contractors in turn employ locals from Marsabit County.
The construction phase of the Project has been completed, thus there are fewer jobs available than during construction. Going forward, the operational jobs that will be available will require specific skills and are advertised HERE on our website and locally by our 15 Community Liaison Officers.
Those interested in applying for a job on the Project can contact us at:
Lake Turkana Wind Power Ltd
P.O Box 2114, 00502
LTWP is committed to ensuring that the development and operation of the Lake Turkana wind farm has minimal negative impact on the communities within the Project’s footprint, and especially on those communities that may be defined as vulnerable, marginalized or indigenous.
LTWP treats all individuals and communities, irrespective of ethnic or social origin, definition or categorization, with respect and without discrimination. LTWP believes that this non-discriminatory approach has fostered an environment where there is less inter-tribal conflict among the communities.
Throughout the Project’s lifecycle LTWP commits to informing the affected communities about the Project, sharing their views, and obtaining broad community support. LTWP will continue to ensure that consultations are conducted in good faith; are culturally appropriate; gender sensitive; voluntary, free of interference and non-manipulative.
All contractors and employees on the wind farm site adhere to Lake Turkana Wind Power’s environmental and social standards, including in relation to human rights and community engagement.
LTWP’s main contractors, under supervision of LTWP, undertake monthly auditing of their subcontractors on labour related aspects that could become human rights issues, such as payroll, accommodation, working conditions and health and safety.
LTWP is audited on a quarterly basis by an external party on behalf of the Project’s Lenders.
LTWP has developed and implemented environmental and social policies and management plans, including : LTWP’s overarching Environmental and Social Policies; Community Health and Safety Management Plan; Labour Management Plan; Stakeholder Engagement Plan; Temporary Accommodation Management Plan; Village Management Plan; Biodiversity and Conservation Management Plan; Cultural Heritage Chance Finds Procedures; Occupational Health and Safety Management Plan; Security Management Plans and Emergency Preparedness and Response Plan, amongst others. These policies and plans will be updated for the operations phase.
The project has a grievance mechanism that deals with grievances submitted by stakeholders, be it local community members or other interested/affected parties.
Any individual or group can contact one of the Project’s 15 Community Liaison Officers (CLO), who will then proceed to register and investigate the complaint. Our CLOs are based in the wider project area and their contacts have been widely distributed.
If you do not have the contact details of one of our CLOs, then you can get in touch with us using our dedicated grievances’ email address:
At this time, it is undetermined what will happen in 20 years’ time. There are various options, e.g.:
- Upgrade of existing wind farm by LTWP (under a new contract with national and county governments, as well as KPLC );
- Wind farm is fully removed (technical term: fully ‘demobilized’);
- Sold to a willing buyer; and,
LTWP have a dedicated project website, which can be accessed via the following link: https://www.ltwp.co.ke
Videos about the project can be accessed on YouTube through the following link: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCJxQ6X9uZWGhHG9XanVqZWQ